Genealogical Society of Sarasota, Inc.
654a

DNA SIG

 
DNA Testing Companies:
Note: Each testing company uses different algorithms to determine matches.  In addition, ethnicity percentages are based upon their testing populations, so they will not match across testing companies.  Therefore, your ethnicity percentages will change as each testing company acquires more testees!!!!
 
It is also important to understand DNA dies out over time....either due to disease or due to the fact that only half of a person's atDNA is passed to the next generation.
 
Remember, many people test to learn their admixture (ethnicity percentages) only!  They are not interested in finding genetic relations.
 
At approx. 7 generations, people stop inheriting DNA from every ancestor.9
 
Remember, each testing company provides their own analysis of your DNA results.  If you have taking your atDNA test at each of the testing companies, the results will NOT match!  They each have their own rules and testing populations!
 
For example, 23andme includes the X-chromosome in their cM calculations, whereas FTDNA does not.
 
Matching Thresholds by Testing Company  
     
Company Min cMs SNPs
FTDNA 7 cM per segment AND 20cM overall 500
     
23andMe 7 cM 700
     
AncestryDNA 5cM Unknown
 
Living DNA - Cost: $159.  Provides your DNA mix across 80 world regions, including 21 in Britain and Ireland.  Test: cheek swab.  Keep in mind, this is dependent upon their testing population from each of those regions!!!  This site does not currently provide family matches but this will occur in the future.  Here is a link to the listing of 21 regions.
 
Link to transfer your autosomal DNA to LivingDNA.
 
MyHeritage
Over 1 million people in their data base as of 30 January 2018, with only 20% being transfers.
 
 

DNA Painter

A free tool whereby you can map your DNA to your chromosomes.

2017 Salt Lake Christmas Tour Presentation and Speech

 

This tool will compare your atDNA against the standards for each gene tested.  The resulting report can provide health indicators.  The test costs $5.  The website contains sample reports.
 
Presentation on Promethease report.
 
Third Party Tool - DNAGedcom - Free but requires the user to register for a user ID and password.  It offers downloads of DNA files from FTDNA and 23andme.  It also offers tools for triangulation and ICW (in common with) segment comparisons of your matches.  It has an Autosomal DNA Segment Analyzer as well.
 
Taken from Richard Hill's blog 7 Feb 2017:
The British breakdown is based on the Peoples of the British Isles Project of the University of Oxford. That study collected blood samples from 4,500 people in rural populations all over the UK. They focused on people whose parents and grandparents were all born in the same locality.
 
Information about European Haplogroups:  Eupedia
 
Definitions:
Haplogroups - a group of individuals sharing a common ancestor; can denote the region the ancestor originated from (i.e. Western Europe, Middle East).  There are 153 known haplogroups and subgroups.
For example, R-M269:  R is the global positioning (large section of the world; Europe); M269 is the SNP, the location and time period (Western Europe/early Bronze Age).
 
SNPs - differences (or mutations) from the reference sequence
 
STRs - short tandem repeats - values in the YDNA
 
atDNA Genetic Distance - the number of mutations difference between yourself and your match
 
Native American DNA:
95% of mtDNA lineages are in these haplogroups: A2, B2, C1b, C1c, C1d, D1 but these haplogroups are not EXCLUSIVE to Native Americans.
 
Marker D9S919, with a value of 9, is present in about 30% of Native American people and not known to be in any other ethnic group.  Not having a value of 9 doesn't DISPROVE Native American heritage.  The test for this is approx. $15 at FTDNA.
 
Native American males who were in America prior to contact with Indo-Europreans have haplogroups of C and Q3.  The Y-DNA test can confirm a specific line is of Native American descent.
 
Males having Native American ancestry could belong to a sub-group of Y haplogroups Q-M242 or C-P39.7
 
Autosomal DNA (atDNA):
Can be traced back 6 generations.  Everyone should be tested.  Can provide health information.  Siblings do not inherit the same 50% of their parents' DNA.
 
Each individual inherits approx. 3,400 cM from each parent.
 
Hair/Teeth:
DNA can be obtained from hair or teeth.  Molars are ideal but companies are not doing this type of work.  Laboratories are expensive.
 
Transferring DNA Results:
atDNA can be transferred to FamilyTreeDNA for FREE from AncestryDNA (Version 1 & 2), 23andme (Versions 3 & 4) or National Geographic.  A new kit number will be assigned.  A fee of $19 is required to display your matches.
 
atDNA can also be transferred to MyHeritage for FREE but this will change in the near future.
 
Fun Fact:
25 generations equals 1400 A.D. and 33 million ancestors!
 
Mutations
Fathers pass down more mutations than mothers & older fathers more than younger fathers.6
 
Online videos and articles:
This is a good video about the pros and cons of AncestryDNA testing.
 
Using DNA to Identify Soldiers of the Western Front by Dr Maurice Gleeson 11 Sept 2016.
 
How DNA Will Change the Face of Irish Genealogy by Dr Maurice Gleeson 5 Jun 2014.
 
Introduction to Molecular Genealogy by Dr Maurice Gleeson 4 Apr 2017.
 
Genetic Genealogy Ireland 2016 Conference:  Videos posted here.
 
ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogy) is an excellent resource on DNA.
 
Future Genetic Genealogy Ireland presentations on YouTube.
 
 
 
 
 
 
How to Build a Mutuation History Tree by Maurice Gleeson 12 Nov 2017
 
 
Free e-book - Which DNA Test is Good for Me?.
 
Blaine Bettinger's Shared cM Project
 
Link to interactive version of Shared cM Project
 
Blogs:
Your Genetic Genealogist (Cee Cee Moore)
 
 
The Genetic Genealogist (Blaine Bettinger)
 
Facebook's DNA Newbie Group (closed group - must click the Join button and the group's administrator will approve your request).
 
Third Party Sites:
DNAAdoption.com - Although developed for adoptees, this site can be used by anyone whiching to triangulate their atDNA matches.
 
DNAGedcom.com - Additional tools for working with DNA results.
 
DNA Land - An academic prodject with features for those whishing to upload their atDNA.
 
 
Pedigree Collapse:  cousins marrying cousins - when there is a small pool of possible spouses
 
Chromosome Mapping/Triangulation - Allows users to narrow down the ancestral line shared between matches.  
 
A mother can pass down a segment of DNA from either her father OR her mother, but not both for the same segment.
 
Under 5cM is only a true identical by descent match when ALL grandparents or great-grandparents have been tested.
 
‚ÄčLink to Kinship Chart.
 
 
 
The Surname Society = Surname Studies
 
Tips 'n Tricks to Analyze Your DNA
 
2017 Salt Lake Christmas Tour Presentation and Speech
 
An MCRA of 5 means 4th cousins who share a 3rd great-grandparent of which 8 couples.
 
1 See "AncestryDNA Breaks Holiday Sales Record for Black Friday to Cyber Monday; More Than Triples Kits Sold Versus 2016," Globe News Wire, posted 28 Nov 2017 (http://globenewswire.com : accessed 3 Dec 2017).
2 See "Rockford native left in 'total shock' after receiving Ancestry.com DNA results," rrstar.com, posted 29 Nov 2016 (http://rrstar.com : accessed 3 Dec 2017).
3 “23andMe Breaks Two Million!,” TheDNAGeek, (http://thednageek.com : accessed 15 Oct 2017).
4 “About the Family Tree DNA Database,” Why FTDNA (https://www.familytreedna.com : accessed 15 October 2017).
5See Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, Va. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 6, Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA).
6See Judy G. Russell, "What's not in our genes," The Legal Genealogist, posted 12 Nov 2017 (http://www.legalgenealogist.com/blog : accessed 21 Nov 2017).
7See Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, Va. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 35, Y-DNA SNPs.
8See Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, Va. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 53, Haplogroups.
9See Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, Va. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 68, atDNA Inheritance Patterns.
10See Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, Va. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 103, Advantages, Limitations, and Test Strategies for X-DNA.
11See Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, Va. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 104, Advantages, Limitations, and Test Strategies for X-DNA.
12See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 50, Mitochondrial DNA.
13See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 55, How the Test Works.
14See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 58, How the Test Works.
15See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 58, Finding mtDNA Cousins.
16See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 71, The Y Chromosome.
17See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 75, How the Test Works.
18See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 75, How the Test Works.
19See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 76, Y-STR Testing.
20See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 77, Y-STR Testing.
21See Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati Oh. : Family Tree Books, 2016), 85, Finding Y-DNA Cousins.