Family Tree DNA
DNA Tests - This is the only company to offer mtDNA and YDNA tests.
You cannot transfer 23andMe V1 or 23andMe V2 results from 23andMe. Autosomal DNA transfers are accepted from:
As of 15 December 2018, FTDNA has 1,010,236 records in their database, including transfers. Statistics on their tests can be found here.
10,248 Group Projects
612,961 unique surnames
691,545 Y-DNA records in the database
370,183 25-marker records in the database
348,676 37-marker records in the database
186,866 67-marker records in the database
318,691 mtDNA records in the database
156,867 FGS records in the database
Testing kits, done via a cheek swab, are available worldwide.
atDNA test results are generally returned in 4 - 6 weeks.
Half-identical regions – One of your chromsomes matches one of your match’s chromsomes. Matching occurs for the 1st segment at 7cM and 700 SNPs and 5cM and 500 SNPs for additional segments.
Fully-identical regions – Both of your chromsomes match both of your match’s chromsomes. Matching occurs at 5cM and 500 SNPs for all segments.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA):
Mothers pass mtDNA to both sons and daughters. Can be traced back 10 generations or approximately 250 years. Only one family member should be tested; multiple family members need not be tested. Men and women can take this test.
Can provide health information.
mtDNA covers 16,569 bases, broken out as follows:
Hyper-Variable Region HVR2 - 1 - 576
Coding Region - 577 - 16,023
HVR1 - 16,024-16,569
A Full Mitochondrial Sequence test will analyze all 16,569 bases. This comprises 37 genes.
People closely related=same SNP at each location
23&me tests mtDNA - 3,000 SNPs – they don't provide the differences between the test taker’s values and the reference sequence, but this information is available in your raw DNA file download.
For more information, visit:
Mitomap – a human mitochondrial genome database - contains reports on mtDNA mutations
Insertions & deletions
dash (-) for mtDNA indicates a deletion
4977D = a deletion
351.1C = 1 insertion
523.2A = 2 insertions
G16129A! = reverted back to ancestral state
G15301A!! - double reversion to ancestral state
Exact mtDNA match - 0 genetic distance - means there's a 95% chance your MRCA is within 22 generations, about 550 years.
mtDNA test results are generally returned in 6 - 8 weeks.
mtDNA test results completed prior to 24 Mar 2017 were updated to Build 17 which further refined the mtDNA haplogroup designations.
Fathers pass YDNA to their sons only. Can be traced back 10 generations, or approximately 250 years. Only one family member should be tested; multiple family members need not be tested.
Does not provide health information. Covers 59 million base pairs and 200 genes. The human genome has 20,000 - 25,000 genes.
The 67-marker test is a good starting point. The greater the number of markers tested, the closer the relationships to be discovered.
Genetic distances are determined by the differences in the values of the markers. For example:
Marker 393 has a value of 12 for you and 13 for your match. The difference is 1.
Marker 390 has a value of 24 for you and 26 for your match. The difference is 2.
The total of both differences is 3, which is the genetic distance.
Matches on the 67-marker test with 3 or fewer differences (0-3 genetic distances) should be investigated to determine the connection.
The standard reference sequence for DNA is the Cambridge Reference Sequence or CRS.
YDNA testing identifies haplogroups. Y SNP testing tests 1-100 spots along the Y chromosome.
DYS value is a specific location on the Y chromosome. DYS393 has with values between 9 - 18 with 13 the most common value. This STR has a mutation rate of 0.00076 or 1 in 1,315 events.
YDNA results may also be uploaded to YHRD
The Y chromosome is 58 million base pairs long, containing about 200 genes.
The FTDNA TIP calculator algorithm is based on individual mutation rates for specific markers. This can affect the genetic distance estimates.
Article on how to get the YDNA haplogroup from autosomal DNA for MALES ONLY.
Link to Y-DNA 67 marker genetic distance chart: If two men share a surname, how should the genetic distance at 67 Y-chromosome STR markers be interpreted?
Link to Y-DNA 111 marker genetic distance chart: If two men share a surname, how should the genetic distance at 111 Y-chromosome STR markers be interpreted?
It's rare for there to be more than 2 mutations between father and son.
dash (-) = no mutation between tester and ancestor
plus sign (+) = mutation
Y DNA test results are generally returned in 8 - 10 weeks.
Fathers and Sons can differ by one mutation at 111 markers (‘Adding Y-DNA Testing to Your Research” by Blaine T. Bettinger, Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol 50, No 2, p77)
Ysearch and Mitosearch, established in 2003 by Family Tree DNA for free, open sharing, were closed down due to the introduction of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that went into effect on May 25th 2018.
Founded in 2000 for mitochrondrial and Y DNA testing. Autosomal testing was added in 2010.
 "Frequently Asked Questions," FamilyTreeDNA.com (https://www.familytreedna.com/autosomal-transfer : accessed 15 Dec 2018).
 "About the Family Tree DNA Database," FamilyTreeDNA.com (https://www.familytreedna.com/why-ftdna.aspx : accessed 15 Dec 2018).
 “Autosomal DNA Match Thresholds,” ISOGG.org/wiki (https://isogg.org/wiki/Autosomal_DNA_match_thresholds : accessed 15 Dec 2018).
 Blaine T. Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy (Cincinnati OH : Family Tree Books, 2016), 50, Mitochondrial DNA.
 Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide, 55, How the Test Works.
 Ibid., at 58.
 Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy in Practice (Arlington, VA. : National Genealogy Society, 2016), 50, mtDNA Test Results
 Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide, 65, Finding mtDNA Cousins.
 "Mitochondrial DNA Build 17 Update at Family Tree DNA," DNA-Explained.com (https://dna-explained.com/2017/03/24/mitochondrial-dna-build-17-update-at-family-tree-dna/ : accessed 15 Dec 2018).
 Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide, 71, The Y Chromosome.
 Ibid., 75, How the Test Works.
 Ibid., 76, Y-STR Testing.
 Ibid., 77, Y-STR Testing.
 Bettinger and Wayne, Genetic Genealogy, 6, Y Chromsome DNA (Y-DNA).
 Bettinger, The Family Tree Guide, 84, Finding Y-DNA Cousins.